Cisco Small Business phones (the SPA-3xx and SPA-5xx ranges) support central address books using LDAP.
The settings are notoriously difficult for people unfamiliar with LDAP to get right. Here is my example using an OpenLDAP server:
So in my LDAP tree I’m using sn for surname and cn for first name.
Set up with Microsoft Active Directory shouldn’t be too much different from this but the exact settings will just depend on your AD structure.